A StarkNet odyssey: Escaping Cairo hell

This is part two of the StarkNet odyssey series in which I explore the StarkNet L2 protocol. Make sure to check part one of this series to get an overview of the protocol, understand what ZK-Proofs are, and learn about all the different tools you need to start developing on StarkNet.

In this article, we’ll review the fundamentals of Cairo—the language used to write smart contracts in StarkNet—and we’ll see how to interact with our contracts from a front-end app using the ArgentX JavaScript library.

You can find all the code samples, contracts, and the web app shown in this article in the GitHub repository.

Cairo fundamentals

As mentioned by Henri Lieutaud (developer advocate at StarkWare) in one of his presentations, Cairo is… well, Cairo is hell. There is an official Cairo 101 repository with code samples, and although it’s super helpful, you can find yourself completely lost reading those contracts.

The learning curve in Cairo is super steep, and trying to understand how things work can be very overwhelming. So let’s try to break down the most common patterns and things that you need to know before you start writing a single line of code.

What is felt?

felt stands for Field Element and is the only data type in Cairo. In simple terms, it’s an unsigned integer with up to 76 decimals, but it can also be used to store addresses.


Currently, Cairo does not support strings. It supports, however, short strings of up to 31 characters but they’re actually stored in felt.

#  = 448378203247
let hello_string = 'hello'


To use arrays in Cairo, you need a pointer that points to the start of the array, which is declared as a felt* using the alloc method.

Adding new elements to the array can be done using assert (more on that later) and the pointer. See an example below:

%lang starknet
%builtins range_check
# import to use alloc
from starkware.cairo.common.alloc import alloc
# view function that returns a felt
func array_demo(index : felt) -> (value : felt):
    # Creates a pointer to the start of an array.
    let (my_array : felt*) = alloc()
    # sets 3 as the value of the first element of the array
    assert [felt_array] = 3
    # sets 15 as the value of the second element of the array
    assert [felt_array + 1] = 15
    # sets index 2 to value 33.
    assert [felt_array + 2] = 33
    assert [felt_array + 9] = 18
    # Access the list at the selected index.
    let val = felt_array[index]
    return (val)

If we try to read a value from an array at an invalid index, the program will fail with the following error: Unknown value for memory cell at address.

You can use arrays as function parameters or in returns, but when declaring it, you should indicate two parameters—the array’s length and the array itself. The naming convention is also important and should be my_array_name and my_array_name_len.

For example:

%lang starknet
%builtins pedersen range_check
from starkware.cairo.common.cairo_builtins import HashBuiltin
# Function that receives an array as parameter, so it actually receives the array length and # the array itself
func array_play(array_param_len : felt, array_param : felt*) -> (res: felt):
    # read first element of the array
    let first = array_param[0]
    # read last element of the array
    let last = array_param[array_param_len - 1]
    let res = first + last
    return (res)

If you don’t follow the proper naming convention, you’ll get the following error from the compiler: Array argument “array_param” must be preceded by a length argument named “array_param_len” of type felt.

Structs and mappings

Structs are very similar to Solidity. We just have to define them with the struct keyword and define all its attributes as a member:

# Account struct
struct Account:
    member isOpen: felt
    member balance: felt

To create a mapping in Cairo, you have to define the types and use the -> sign between the key and the value. For example:

# Mapping named "accounts_storage" that holds the account details for
# each user using his address as key
func accounts_storage(address: felt) -> (account: Account):

We can also return structs from a Cairo function. You can find an example in this code sample.

Declaring variables

Variables can be aliased using the let keyword, or evaluated using the const, local or tempvar keywords.

  • const used for constants, can not be re-assigned.
  • local used for local variables. Can not be re-assigned and requires adding alloc_locals to the function.
  • tempvar used for temporary variables. They can be re-assigned.
  • let used to create alias by value or by reference to other variables. Can be re-assigned.

Here are some examples of how to use each one of them:

%lang starknet
# persistent state variable
func storage_variable() -> (res : felt):
func variable_examples{}():
  # required to use local variables
  # creating alias by value
  let a = 5
  let b = 3
  # creating alias by reference. x value is 5
  let x = a
  # constant, can not be re assigned
  const ten = 10
  # res is 15 here, 5 * 3
  tempvar res = a * b
  # local varible. c is 15
  local c = ten + a
  # re-assign aliased variable
  let b = 2
  # re-assign tempvar. res is 10 here, 5 * 2
  tempvar res = a * b
  return ()

Notice that in order to re-assign a variable, you have to indicate the variable type (tempvar, let).

Storage variables: read and write

Contract state variables are called storage variables in Cairo. To define them, we need to use the @storage_var decorator and declare them as functions as follows:

# Keeps a counter of the number of accounts
func number_of_accounts() -> (res: felt):

To read and write to storage variables, we need to use the read and write methods, making sure that the data type that we pass matches the data type defined in the storage variable:

# Keeps a counter of the number of accounts
func number_of_accounts() -> (res: felt):
# Creates an account for the user
func readWriteAccounts{syscall_ptr : felt*, pedersen_ptr : HashBuiltin*, range_check_ptr}():
    # read number of accounts from storage
    let (n_accs) = number_of_accounts.read()
    # writes number of accounts in storage
    number_of_accounts.write(n_accs + 1)
    return ()

Why is {syscall_ptr : felt*, pedersen_ptr : HashBuiltin*, range_check_ptr} in every method?

If you have read any Cairo contract, you’ve probably found these lines of code all over the place:{syscall_ptr : felt*, pedersen_ptr : HashBuiltin*, range_check_ptr}.

Those are implicit function arguments and they are used to access the state variables behind the scenes. In addition, range_check_ptr can be used to compare integers. Just remember to include them in your function declarations when you’re reading or writing state variables.

If you forget to include them, the compiler will fail with the following error: Unknown identifier ‘syscall_ptr’ … Unknown identifier ‘syscall_ptr’ 😉


The assert statement is very useful but it can be used for two completely different things:

  • to compare if the value of two variables is the same.
  • to set the value in a variable that has not been set before.

See the example below:

%lang starknet
func demo_assert(guess : felt) :
    const a = 7
    tempvar b
    # verifies if the guess is 7
    assert a = guess
    # assigns 5 to variable b
    assert b = 5
    # verifies if the guess is 5
    assert b = guess
    return ()

For other assertions, you can import different methods from the starkware.cairo.common.math library like assert_not_zero, assert_in_range, assert_not_equal, assert_le and assert_lt. For example:

%lang starknet
from starkware.cairo.common.math import (
func assertions_demo(a: felt, b: felt):
    assert_not_equal(b, a)
    assert_le(1, 100)
    assert_lt(b, 1)
    assert_in_range(b, 1, 60)
    return ()

Contract functions

Cairo contract functions are declared with the @external or @view decorators. External functions can be called by users or by other contracts while view functions are similar but they only query the contract state and do not alter it.

# view function that returns the number of accounts from the storage variable
func accountsOpen{syscall_ptr : felt*, pedersen_ptr : HashBuiltin*, range_check_ptr}() -> (res: felt):
    let (res) = number_of_accounts.read()
    return (res)
# Creates an account for the user and updates the storage variable
func openAccount{syscall_ptr : felt*, pedersen_ptr : HashBuiltin*, range_check_ptr}():
    let (sender_address) = get_caller_address()
    # checks if the user already has an account
    let (user_account) = accounts_storage.read(sender_address)
    assert user_account.isOpen = 0
    let (n_accs) = number_of_accounts.read()
    accounts_storage.write(sender_address, Account(isOpen=1, balance=0))
    number_of_accounts.write(n_accs + 1)
    return ()

Returned values must be indicated in the function declaration, and wrapped in parenthesis in the body, even if the function does not return anything 😉

Contract structure

Contracts in Cairo have a similar structure to contracts written in Solidity. It’ll contain the following:

  1. Language declaration %lang starknet
  2. Imports
  3. Structs and state variables
  4. Contract methods

Messaging between L1-L2

One of the cool things you can do with Cairo is send messages between StarkNet (L2) and Ethereum (L1).

You’d need to deploy a contract in StarkNet and use the send_message_to_l1 function, which takes as parameters the address of the contract that is going to receive the message in the L1 and the payload.

You’ll also need to deploy a contract in Ethereum that implements the interface IStarknetCore, which has the methods sendMessageToL2 and consumeMessageFromL2.

You can find a step-by-step tutorial about L1-L2 messaging in our docs.

Interacting with contracts

Although you can interact with contracts directly from Voyager, the official explorer, you will most likely build a web app or script to interact with your contracts.

When it comes to interacting with StarkNet contracts from a web application, the most common libraries are starknet.js and @argent/get-starknet.

The first one is a standalone JavaScript library that you can use in both the front and the back-end applications. You can find the API documentation here.

The second one is a light wrapper that makes it easier to interact with the wallet, although it uses the starknet.js library as a peer dependency, so the API to interact with contracts is the same.

Web app example

I’ve created a Vue.js web app to showcase how to interact with a contract deployed to StarkNet. You can find the code in the following repository.

The @argent/get-starknet makes it super simple to connect a wallet and, by default, includes a pop-up that allows users to use both ArgentX or Braavos wallets.

Here’s a quick code snippet that shows how to connect to the user’s wallet:

import { connect } from '@argent/get-starknet'
let starknet = null
const connectWallet = async () => {
  starknet = await connect()
  console.log('startknet >>', starknet)
  if (!starknet) {
    throw Error(
      'User rejected wallet selection or silent connect found nothing'
  await starknet.enable()
  // Check if connection was successful
  if (starknet.isConnected) {
    console.log('starknet connected')
  } else {
    console.log('starknet wallet not connected')

Once your app is connected to the user’s wallet, you can use it to interact with contracts using the starknet.account.callContract function for view methods, or starknet.account.execute for external methods. Both require an object with the following properties:

  • contractAddress
  • entrypoint which is the method name we want to call.
  • calldata an array with all the parameters we want to send. (optional)

Here is an example to use both:

// Reads from the chain using callContract
const getUserNumber = async () => {
  try {
    const res = await starknet.provider.callContract({
      contractAddress: CONTRACT_ADDRESS,
      entrypoint: 'get_number',
    console.log('res', res)
    savedNumber.value = Number(`${res.result[0]}`)
  } catch (error) {
// Writes on-chain using execute
const saveNumber = async () => {
  try {
    const trxDetails = await starknet.account.execute({
      contractAddress: CONTRACT_ADDRESS,
      entrypoint: 'save_number',
      calldata: [userNum.value],
    console.log('trxDetails', trxDetails)
  } catch (error) {

StarkNet Python library

If you prefer to use Python in your StarkNet projects, StarkNet.py is what you need. It offers both synchronous and asynchronous methods to interact with contracts and query the blockchain.


I hope this helps you kick-start your projects in StarkNet and solve any doubts you might have about how to start developing apps in it.

L2 solutions are becoming more and more popular and StarkNet is one of the most active ones, with hackathons taking place almost every month. The team has recently launched StarkGate, a bridge to move ETH to StarkNet and the adoption has been great so more applications will be available soon.

If you want to keep learning about StarkNet and Cairo, make sure to follow Henri Lieutaud on Twitter and check out the StarkWare Youtube channel in which you’ll find workshops and live community calls.

And of course, spin up your own StarkNet node in Chainstack 😉

Have you already explored what you can achieve with Chainstack? Get started for free today.

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